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Bibliographic Information

Even though the most relevant networks of Italian cities Florence, Venice, Genoa deployed their agents into many European centers, the presence of Italian communities permanently residing here was essentially inconsistent 2. When Italian merchants interacted with German operators they used to trade through Bruges and Venice, where the greatest partnerships and a number of individual firms had their branches. In , the florin was regularly in use in Poland, representing the model for the money-making of German, Polish and Hungarian coins.

The settlement was situated at the center of a mining area, from where raw materials mainly iron and lead reached Venice regularly without major competition 8.

We also know that in the nuncio had explicitly encouraged the Bardi to open in Krakow a branch of their company, with the aim of making safe tutissimum et securum et certum the money raised from the papal revenues. Buda became the site of the most relevant community of Italian merchants in Central Europe, hosting the representatives of several Florentine companies.

These operated in trading and moneylending activities, in close connection with the investments of the banks working in Venice The Florentine merchants took advantage of their position as contractors and mint managers to trade with the products from their hometown. Having the exclusive rights on the collection of ecclesiastical tithes, Medici and other Florentine banks decided then to keep permanent agents in Poland, particularly in Krakow Italians managed then the office of the zupparius , who had the responsibility to lead the mines and the saline of the Kingdom, safeguarding the administration and the care of the lands The collaboration between the Polish crown and the Tuscan city did not fail to engage in this movement of human resources towards Krakow also the skilled artisans.

Among the Italians who received the Krakow citizenship, we find, for example, the two brothers Bernardo and Iacopo of Bonaccorso, weavers A major role was played by Petrus Bicarani from Venice, who also received a charta when the consuls of Krakow claimed themselves as debtors against him The Venetian, also zupparius salis , represented a sort of intermediary with the responsibility of maintaining the relations between the Italian network and the Polish institutions. Left without the support of his powerful protector, Tornaquinci had formed since a new partnership with Tommaso of Giovanni to continue his business between Venice and Central Europe Thanks to this tool, the Florentine state was able to support the network of merchants and businessmen operating abroad, at times taking on their defense against legal proceedings or disputes of a commercial nature In the protocol of their epistolary, the chancellor would at time curry favor with the recipient using harmonious rhetorical devices.

The chancellor emphasizes, therefore, in order to reinforce the antiquity of the Florentine allegiance to the Polish crown, with fidelity traced back to the times of King Louis of Anjou. Although this captatio benevolentiae was a common element in diplomacy, this reference is more proof of the rising role of the Florentine in Poland under the Angevine government Why this preferential treatment? In the decades between 14th and 15th centuries, the relevance of the Tuscan presence in Hungary was guaranteed by the prominent role assumed by Filippo Scolari, a merchant first who had become adviser to the King Sigmund, then overlord of several castles, and finally commander of the royal troops.

Thanks to his helping hand, Florentines occupied some important institutional and ecclesiastical positions in the kingdom, being chosen because of their neighborly relations. Moving from the district of Santa Maria Novella, the Scolari family took their residence in the district gonfalone of the Keys Chiavi , where the most powerful family in town, the Albizzi, kept their houses. Their alliance with Albizzi was finally sealed with the marriage between Giovanni of Rinaldo Albizzi and Francesca of Matteo Scolari During those years, six letters of recommendations reached Krakow to support Florentine merchants, particularly the sons of Giovanni of ser Matteo.

Selections from this collection

In actuality, the association with the Ricci was only the first step for their introduction into the Florentine network living in Venice, when several members of the family had reached a position as merchants. His brother Michele b. In , he became the factor of the Tornaquinci in Venice, and three years later, when he was 22 years-old, he had formed a partnership with Filippo of Gucciozzo Ricci to trade in the Magna After the death of Giuliano, Michele became the holder of a family-owned company engaged with international trading, with his brothers Guido b.

Despite the beginnings of their career was spent in the Medici entourage, they built a solid relationship with the Albizzi. The real estate of the family focused around the house in via Fiesolana, inside the Keys district, heart of the patronage system that the Albizzi and Scolari abroad had structured within their neighborhood Trade was managed by Bindaccio of Sandro Altoviti in Barletta with a limited-liability company achomanda that had matured credits for 1.

In the Twenties, Michele was now part of the leadership of the Tuscan community, attending, for example, the signing of the alliance treaty between Florence and Venice, but, above all, he represented the person of trust and the point of reference in the lagoon for Rinaldo Albizzi, the most influential figure of the Florentine oligarchy at the time When Rinaldo led an embassy sent to Hungary in , Michele figured himself as a trustee to arrange for hospitality during his Venetian stop. The work of Leonardo in the Magna was continued even after the end of their agreement on March 16 th , when a sentence of Mercanzia declared a solution for the trading relationship between the two families The event had prompted the Florentine government to start a diplomatic negotiation for his release, as confirmed by a letter of recommendation sent to the King of Poland in Thanking the King for his release, the Signoria recommended Leonardo and his brothers negotiatores in partibus vestris , underlining the high esteem enjoyed by their family at home We do not know if Leonardo was caught a second time in , or if the Polish King had changed his mind, the fact is that August the Florentine was still devoid of freedom.

The following March, the status of Leonardo was restored to such an extent as to enable him to receive, along with his brother Antonio, the special appointment as zupparius with an engagement of The event was celebrated by the Florentine government with the drafting of a new letter of recommendation, sent with the intention of thanking the majesty for yet another favor received It reveals that the dispute was totally internal to the Florentine community that was unable to solve it on their own or with the help of the institutions responsible for it at home. The consequences of a clash that could possibly transfer abroad the political tensions existing at home could not be negligible.

Before the appointment of Leonardo and Antonio as zupparii , another letter had reached Kracow on January to protect the overall work of the Florentine community The letter would not be understandable at all, considering that Florentine merchants held such relevant offices of the Kingdom.

4 Florence Parking Fines received over 3 years later - Florence Forum

If Florence was estimated to recommend generically their citizens residing in Poland, it is likely that this was due to a fracture within the community itself, divided because of a dispute which had opposed its most important members. This time, the controversy concerned the sale of wool yams stamina panni that Antonio and Leonardo had pledged to sell at the fair to be held in Krakow on the day of St. The agreement provided that the two brothers would pay to Albizzo two grossi for each yam unsold.

Concluded the fair, the two zupparii had reported that they had sold the entire load of goods, but Albizzo, not trusting them Illi asserebant quod sic, sed dominus theleonator in oppositum dixit quod non , had requested that they would provide the necessary documentation to prove it. Then, the deal was put forth by the respective notaries, who were charged to view together the loads of clothes owned by Antonio and Leonardo and establish what had been sold or not However, the support to its network continued to be pursued by the Florentine government even when things turned for the better.

A new letter of recommendation, written on February 2th, , was sent in several copies to the King and his councilors to celebrate the success of the management of the salt mines during the early years of the administration carried on by Leonardo and Antonio In supporting the reasons for their citizens, the Florentine government did not fail to underline how the administration of saline Wielicensis et Bochnensis had reached qualitative results never achieved by anyone else before, in spite of the damages suffered during the passage of a recent plague This source, the Catasto, allows us to take a screenshot of the accounts of the sons of Giovanni of ser Matteo, being careful to not forget that the omissions in this kind of declarations were far from rare Matteo e Qurado di Bresilavia dela Mangnia, lire 10, soldi 12, denari 6 di grossi.

Vagliono in Firenze fiorini Piero Bede di Bresilavia dela Mangnia, lire 20, soldi 12, denari 1 di grossi. Vagliono in Firenze fiorini Here, goods from Venice, from Baltic and from Flanders as well the precious raw materials, particularly minerals, the lapis lazuli lapides or the Polish cochineal dye cremesi , were exchanged by merchants The documents related to the disputation, part preserved in Krakow and part in Venice, were edited by Jan Ptasnik and discussed by many scholars because of their interest In the first part of the agreement, the consuls discussed the charges brought by Antonio about the stealing of his money, private documents and some fish piscature , for what the judges recognized Banke as a responsible condemning him to pay marks in Bohemian coin.

The house has been granted temporarily in use to Banke, who at the end had come to occupy it without allowing the return to its rightful owner. Faced with a total investment of In both cases involving together a money flow valued with 3. The following year the matter came back to debate in the courts of Venice, where Michele and several procurators had tried to defend their position about the trade concerning the export and sale of cochineal dye sent by Johanne Banke to Venice At the end of the trial, Venetian judges condemned Michele to pay lire 49, soldi 8, grossi 2 and piccoli in Venetian coins to Johann Banke plus all the judicial expenses.

Again, that was not enough. A final trial was held in Venice on December 16 th , to allow Michele and his brothers to split their payment in three times, to be concluded on June, The status declared at Catasto in shows significant differences with the previous one. The incidence of damage for the accounts of the company was indeed significant, since the debts had exceeded credits.

Florence Nightingale Letters

Finally, it is not negligible the value of the debts incurred by the company with a strong presence of those silk producers and bankers that have supported their investments The first step was about to send to Poland a new agent that should take care of the interests of the company, urging the creditors existing in Krakow and Wroclaw.

There remain several sources collected by Ptasnik among the testimonies given by him in front of the Venetian judges in Antonio had invested heavily on his permanence in Krakow, taking marriage and having sons, a choice that was usually assumed by Florentine merchants just after the achievement of their final statement. Together, they vowed to mortgage their property and their own lives if Antonio had not paid his debts within the next Christmas Day, after which they would have been imprisoned until complete solution of their obligations The debt of Antonio was essentially become the debt of the entire community.

Not only Florence had supported formally and exclusively the action of this family to strengthen trade relationships, but the same organization of the network had been brought forward in only one direction.

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In his new declaration at the Catasto, Michele announces the death of his brother, stressing that he had left none legacy but the expenses for his funeral Please bring 15x 55 cent stamps or make a donation to help cover them. Do letter-writing campaigns work? Our partners at Voter Participation Center have found an increase of 4.

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